A lineman is the person who is responsible to maintain, repair and install High power distribution and transmission lines. Lineman also built the system which provide electricity to the end user from it’s source. Linemen get trained through a proper apprenticeship program which needs 4 years to complete. A fully skilled lineman is called Journeyman ore journey worker.
Being a linemen is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. Electric shocks and burns, working on heights are the main threats for a lineman. Injuries consists on bruises, cuts and scrapes. Falling from heights is another reason of fatalities. We have collected linemen photos during work so that you get to know how much risk linemen takes to provide us electric power.
Check out these blood-curdling linemen photos.
1-Storm will pass, Lineman will come
3-Hanging and Banging
4-Playing with “Hot Wires”
5-Only linemen can do this
6-This picture worth more than thousand words.
7-Lineman can do sit ups 300ft in the air. Do you?
Literature of any culture or era serves many valuable purposes. Literature may be a source of valuable information from the experiences of the past generations. It may also be a source of a deep insight onto the mistakes committed that had huge repercussions for a whole generation in an era. Some literature may also be just a source of enjoyment in form of love stories or poems. When discussing literature, Greek era can’t be overseen. It holds one of the most classical literature and serves multiple purposes. Greek classics literature use comedy to teach valuable lessons. On the other hand, some Greek classics debate on serious topics concerning politics or law and can be a guide for many professionals of this era! From the piles of Greek literature, we have used credible sources to list of Greek classics that everyone should read:
Most of these Greek classics online version are also available. We have mentioned the appropriate links where possible.
Published: 429 BC
Oedipus the King, known as Oedipus Rex in Latin, is a play written by Sophocles. Written in Latin language the story revolves around a tragedy. This story starts with the Thebes being struck with plague. The cause of this plague is believed to be the unlawful freedom of the ex-king’s murderer named Oedipus which people believe was their son. The queen of Thebes doesn’t believe this story at first. Her disbelief is because she and her husband, the king, abandoned their child at a very early stage. Later, her husband was killed by robbers. On the other hand, Oedipus himself starts to doubt himself as the king’s (his father’s) murderer as he recalls himself killing a man on a roadside. He also recalls marrying the widowed queen to become the king. When this story is confirmed, the queen hangs herself while Oedipus punctures his eyes to become blind.
Among Greek and roman classics “Discourses of Epictetus” is most famous one. Discourses of Epictetus is a teachings-based extract written by Arrian in 108 A.D. It is an extract of the scholastic teachings of the famous philosopher Epictetus. This piece of work is based on Stoicism. Stoicism is the ignorance of one’s surroundings. Written in ancient Greek language, this piece of work educates people about the consequences a nation can encounter when concentration of the people shift to luxuries instead of surroundings. It teaches this with the help of the example of the downfall of Greece, where people started ignoring prominent signs which led to the subsequent rise of the Romans.
Click here to read “Discourses of Epictetus” online
The Frogs revolves around a comedy yet serves a great message of the writer’s opinions about democracy and politics in Athens. It is written by a classical comedy writer Aristophanes. It is based on a God Dionysus who goes in the underworld to rescue Euripides. Among the ancient Greek classics, this comedy was written around in 405 BC where it received the first prize for its great quality. It is a must read for anyone who wishes to take an insight on ancient Greek comedy.
Ajax is a play written by Sophocles. It was written in the 5th century BC. This play was held in Athens, Greece. It revolves around a tragedy. The core story revolves around the play’s hero Ajax. It shows how an uncompromising, rude and violent behavior makes Ajax a stubborn in realizing his own flaws. The play shows how a stubborn Ajax rejected the kind help offered by the play’s goddess “Athena” which became the root cause of a severe tragedy. One of the best Greek classics and It is a must read for everyone. It teaches important life lessons to be flexible in listening to others and to avoid extreme anger or severe reaction. It also discusses a common debate on fate vs a human’s choice of actions.
This is a remarkable piece of work written by the well-known philosopher and writer Aristotle. It is a book that covers a lot of aspects such as: detailed analysis on politics, discussing different types and features of democracies and much more! It also discusses what are the major offices required to run a successful government and what should be their respective tasks. To make the book easy to read, Aristotle divided this series into 8 set of books. Each book covers a well-classified set of topics to make it a step by step information guide for every reader. It is as useful as a handbook guide for the people related with politics or law nowadays. Aristotle also gives his verdict with supporting arguments about martial laws or dictatorships being the worst form of government for any state.
“The Republic” was written by Plato in 360 BC. It was initially written in Greek but was later translated in other languages. The Republic is a fact finding draft. It formalizes the definition of justice. It is considered as one of the best hand written work topping the list of most influential books. Its main theme is philosophy and political theory. Several famous personalities of that time used to discuss their views and opinions regarding justice. They tried to determine the fate of a just and an unjust man. All these common ideas were analyzed by Plato and made into a series of books which illustrate political philosophy.
In total, there are 10 books of this series. It deals with the various subjects related with politics like timocracy, diarchy, and tyranny. It even defines democracy which is currently being followed around the globe. This practice of writing on overly governed systems, qualities of a just and good leader etc. These principles ere later followed by Aristotle as well. It is recommended to be read by the present day politicians and lawyers to gain valuable information from this illustrative book for their own good.
“Histories” also known as the “The History” is part of the western literature by Herodotus in Ancient Greek. It was first time published in 440 BCE. This book mostly covers Greek and roman civilization. It basically deals with the records of ancient customs, geography, and politics and clashes that brewed within several cultures. So, it is considered as a record book. In the western part of the world it holds a fundamental position when referring to records of past regarding the above mentioned topics. It gives full information about the rise and declines of empires.
A particular one described by Herodotus in detail in his draft “Histories” is Persian Empire’s progress. The whole set of this piece of work is divided into 9 parts. Each of them mentions about different wars etc. This factual account is really good and informative for geologists, historians and politicians. This can be read by any individual; not necessarily a politician or historian as it broadens one’s mind and increases knowledge.
Cyropaedia, also pronounced as cyropedia is an imaginary biography of Cyrus the Great. This was written in 370 BC by a solider and student of Socrates, Xenophon. The title “Cyropaedia” means education of Cyrus. This is a Greek draft. It precisely describes the character, education and life of one of the rulers called Cyrus. This draft mentions the good governance of Cyrus as well as he being an ideal ruler. Tribute to Cyrus is paid by Xenophon in his Cyropaedia. There are 8 books giving an account of Cyrus’ life. The beginning of this series comprising of 8 books tells that why people obey rules willingly and why others don’t. As this series reaches the middle of the account, it lists Cyrus’ conquests and tactics used by him to establish his empire. The last book is based on a summary of his whole reign and his views of monarchy.
“Iliad” also known as “song of lion” is basically an ancient poem written by Homer. This story covers details about the Greek states. It covers the events occurring at that time in Greece and the battles fought mainly between King Agamemnon and the Warrior Achilles. “lliad” also gives details about the preparations of wars like gathering warriors, preparing them and etc. It mentions the cause of war and it’s after effects as well.
The main themes of this poem are Nostos, Kleos, time, wrath and fate. Nostos is mentioned seven times in the whole poem. Kleos or ‘glory’ indicates the heroic battles fought at that time. Time links with the subjects like respect and honor, praising the honorable men of that time who were culturally, politically and martially famous and successful. Wrath is one of the starting words of this poem, meaning rage or anger. This actually describes the wrath of Achilles. The last theme is fate which mainly discusses the end of one’s life that is death. This poem is good for historians as it is a good explanatory verse about wars in past.
Apollonius was born in Alexandria. He was an epic poet, a librarian and a scholar as well. He being a poet wrote Argonautica, an epic Greek poem written in 3rd century BC. The poem is based on the adventures of Jason and Argonauts to Golden Fleece from Colchis. It also includes the relationship between Jason and Medea. This is considered as one of the top initial poems written with the theme of love and romance. “Argonautica” considered as the base for the upcoming romantic stories and novels. This is an excellent verse for those who are fond of book reading and have interests in subjects like romantic literature and ancient Greek poetry.
There are some famous trials that have created impact on the History. They either have changed the way of ideologies or build something totally new in the society. Most of these genius people did evil things and were punished in crime cases while other got convicted because of ignorance of the society.
What is a trial and what makes a trial very important and a historic one?
A trial is a hearing by a judge or a group of judges for the determination of the truth of a criminal case. Trials are mostly famous court cases. The decision is judged after the fair examination of all the evidence and eyewitness statements leading to an offense against the law. Thousands of trials are held every month in the world to determine the facts and to punish the guilty. However, some trials involve extremely important personalities. It may include important and charismatic religious figures, notables in politics, philosophers etc. In the past, there have been many historic trials of notable figures and in the following rundown, we have listed the 10 most notable and famous trials that changed history
10-The Massachusetts Trials
They are more commonly known as the “Salem Witch Trials”. As the name indicates this trial is linked with witches and witchcraft and wizardry. Among the famous trials in US history “Salem Witch Trials” is famous one. People accused belonging to the world of invisible were executed including individuals both male and female, but the majority was of females. Even infants too died in prison. Magic and supernatural happenings were common in old days especially in the 17th century and so persecutions too became common from 1560 to 1670 when this was associated with the devil and evil doings. Salem trials began after the strange acts of people.
The odd acts made the people appear as wizards but the reality was far more different. Actually, this change in locals’ behavior was a repercussion of political, social and religious issues in the society which affected them mentally. Thus, there was a serious change in their attitude leading to a state of being mad and so they were imprisoned. Salem witch trials executions count is 20. This trial was famous because of its resemblance with fancy fairy tales.
Alfred Dreyfus was born on 9 October 1859. He was a Jew and by profession a Lieutenant Colonel in the French army. Trial against him began in 1894 when accusations were raised against him of transferring secret as well as important information to the German government. He was soon arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment on the order of court. The case was supposed to end here but a twist came later. This turn in the story was brought by a new chief in military intelligence in August 1896. Clues were found indicating that the culprit was not Dreyfus but someone else. Later it was found that Major Esterhazy could be responsible for this passing of confidential information to the neighboring country.
Therefore, after one year, the case was opened again. When this news was leaked to media it became an everyday debate topic. It divided people into mainly two groups. One became against Alfred and the other in favor of Alfred.The one believing in Alfred’s innocence demanded an end to his imprisonment. But, unfortunately, the second time as well, he was proved as a traitor. On public insistence, he was freed but this freedom was of no use for him as he said:
The government of the Republic has given me back my freedom. It is nothing for me without my honor
Later in July 1906 Alfred was officially exonerated by the military commission with a higher rank.
A German individual born on 10 November 1483 was a priest as well as professor of theology. He played a vital role in the Protestant reformation. The reason why he had to confront the judges was his disagreement with the Roman Catholic teachings. In his point of view, the teachings were wrong. In 1516, he started justifying his disagreement leading to grouping among the masses. The one who favored Luther were called Lutherans. For him, selling of ‘indulgences’ by the Catholic clergy was fallacious. In his view, it emphasized on the opinion that heaven can be bought by money.
He wrote his “Ninety – Five” thesis of 1517 which further described the incorrect practices of Catholics. Another reason why he was called by the judges was that his teachings were against the divine teachings of Bible. He believed that eternal life cannot be achieved by good deeds in the world. Those who acknowledged his perspectives were very less. He escaped from the punishment and went to live his life with Fredrick. The books written by him were burned on court’s order.
7-Charles l of England
Charles was the head of three kingdoms of Great Britain: England, Ireland and Scotland. His reign lasted from the very first day he took charge till his capital punishment. After his father and brother’s death, he inherited the above-mentioned states. From the very beginning, he was at conflict with the parliamentarians. He believed that being a king, only he should govern the land using his own wisdom. His anti-religious acts such as questioning the practices in the church, demanding its conversion to the Anglican way, further increased hatred among the parliamentarians as well as the Bishops.
His religious conflicts led to the famous Bishop Wars in which he did not take help of parliamentarians. These wars lead to his financial crisis which further weakened him. In 1642, English Civil war begins which was between Charles and the members of parliament. No doubt, this civil war was the reason for his decline. He surrendered in front of the Scottish army who gave him to the English army and from here his trial began. The court declared him as a traitor. He was executed. His head was presented in front of a crowd of thousands.
He was an Italian physicist, engineer, philosopher, and astronaut. His role in the scientific revolution was exemplary. He is titled as ‘father of physics ‘and ‘father of astronomy‘. Services rendered by him were controversial because everyone believed in the geocentric system. Galileo’s writings showed that Sun is the center of the world and Earth revolves around it. This view of him faced several objections by the religious people as well as scientists. Priests and monks objected this as this clearly disagreed with the Biblical teachings. According to Psalm 93:1, 96:10 and 1 chronicles 16:30
The world is firmly established, it cannot be moved.
This clearly opposed Galileo’s discoveries. Scientists raised their voices against this because they thought that if this is true so annual stellar parallax should be noted but none was and so the stars couldn’t possibly be so far and greater in size than the Sun. He was forced to leave his views and was sentenced house arrest.
John Hus was born in 1372 a Czech priest. Known as the first church reformer he belonged to a property stricken family. He got trained for the priesthood and studied till doctorate level. John was greatly impressed by Wycliffe writings and soon his views changed. He developed great interest in Biblical teachings and emphasized on the wrong doings of the Catholics. His views were considered really controversial. Germans tried to suppress his voice and other Czechs but were forced to flee. But when he lost the support of his followers, he lost his superiority as well. On 5th June 1415, his trial was started which ended on 8th June 1415 after a series of hearings. Hus was given a chance of leaving his beliefs but he refused and was accordingly punished.
He was perhaps the greatest astronomer of the 16 century. Bruno was born in 1548. He is famous for his cosmological theories. Trials against him began in 1593 and after 7 years in 1600, they ended. During these seven years, he was kept in Tower of Nona. The reason why he confronted the court was because of the charges against him which included immoral conduct, heresy, and blasphemy. Among famous criminal trials Bruno trial is most popular. His criminal history includes pointing fingers at Catholic believes and virginity of Mary (mother of Jesus Christ). Talking about the existence of multiple worlds and dealing with magic were his major mistakes.His philosophies were against Christianity. He even opposed Aristotle. Bruno tried his level best to prove himself innocent but failed. On 20 January 1600, Pope Clement VIII sentenced him to death during a trial.
The heroine of France named Joan of Arc was born on 6 January 1412 in France. She was also commonly known as “The Maid of Orleans”. She was regarded as a heroine due to her great services rendered during the Hundred Years’ War. The trial for heresy began mainly due to political intrigues. Her court trial began on 9 January 1431 at Roven after she was captured by the Duke of Burgundy. Bishop Cauchon and vice inquisitors of France were the judges.
Eyewitnesses describe her and narrated the odd actions shown by her like hearings voices etc. She even preferred to wear men’s clothes. At last she was considered as a “witch” and was sentenced to death. Living in prison for so long lead to her illness. The execution took place in 1431 by burning her at the stake. However, in 1456, the case was reopened and she was proved innocent. Therefore, she was given the title of a martyr and was also canonized by the church.
Socrates was a renowned Greek philosopher. He is known as the pioneer of western philosophy. Socrates was killed by Jacques-Louis David because of Socrates being a detractor and a fault finder in democracy. He seriously criticized the social and moral position of the land and even criticized the ideas such as ‘might is right ‘which was followed by every other man at that time. Socrates wanted to improve and groom the Athenian thinking. But soon his teachings were considered as slow poison for the brains of the masses and was accordingly he was put on trial. He was subjected to two main charges against him; one of moral corruption and impiety. The charges were proved against him during the trial. He was sentenced to death by poison. This poison was given to him in a drink which led to his execution.
Also known as Jesus Christ, he was born to Maryam, a virgin, in 4 BC. Jesus is a prime figure of Christianity. Among famous trials in history Jesus hearing was the most impactful in history. According to Christian belief, he was conceived by the Holy Spirit. He was arrested reportedly for blasphemy. After Jesus Christ was arrested his trial began. He was treated very harshly, as a captive. According to John, Jesus was first taken to Anna’s and then the priest. This was because Jesus wanted to avoid defending himself and to avoid giving explanations in favor of himself or proving himself right. At one instance, he was even slapped by a Jewish officer. Jesus was accused of blasphemy as he repeatedly said that he is the son of God.
Later Jesus was taken to Pilate’s court. Pilate was not sure whether Jesus deserved punishment or not but he was forced by the Jews and the public to punish him. Jesus was taken Via Dolorosa for crucifixion. One their way, he was offered concoction a natural painkiller but he refused to take it. Jesus was crucified at Golgotha and on each side he had a person standing next to him, one defending him and the other against him. After he was crucified it is believed that he was seen several times by his followers.
People with exceptional talent are called geniuses. While there are some who use this talent in the wrong direction. Those are often termed as evil genius people.
Many evil minds persist in our community. Most of them are pushed towards negativity due to psychological factors. However, it is quite puzzling to know that in history, some of these evil geniuses had the inexplicable intelligence to carry out their sinister activities. These are called evil genius people.
These super intelligent people involved themselves in bad activities and history remembered them as life evil geniuses.
In the following rundown, We have listed the top 10 most evil genius people of all time:
Charles started off with his life in misery. Unfortunately, he never actually experienced the extraordinary life with parents. His relations within the family were confined to his mother. Additionally, his mother wasn’t even near to what a real mother should be. She abandoned him badly in a boarding school system. Therefore, negligence followed Charles all along his adolescence and teenage. Despite such conditions, he found his way in a steady way to being one of the most notorious criminals of the USA. His offenses started off from small burglaries in grocery stores and went on to armed robberies and even murder! His evil ingenuity led him to devise inexplicable ways to form a gang that committed a series of 9 murders in 1969. Charles was a singer and songwriter by profession but a life filled with offenses lead him to a life sentence behind bars.
Kim Philby was born in British India in 1912. Though Kim was a British intelligence officer of the famous MI6 agency, he, in fact, worked secretly for the Soviet Union. Through his evil ingenuity, he was able to provide highly classified information to the Soviet Union. He was hired as a Soviet Union spy before the Second World War. Kim ‘A genius for deception‘ kept on acting as a double agent for both British and Soviets keeping the trust alive on both sides.
He played a significant role in defying Franco’s forces during the Spanish Civil War for the sake of Britain. On the other hand, he continued to work for the Soviets. He is known to have provided secret information to the Soviets about a defecting Soviet agent that ultimately lead to the officer’s death and delay in British operation. He was indeed a remarkable evil genius who defied two nations at a time on multiple occasions but still didn’t get anything proved on himself.
Adam Worth was born in 1844 in Germany. He is often referred to as “The Napoleon of Crime” due to his intelligence in committing crimes. Bank robberies, store robberies, pick-pocketing, bounty jumping, jail breaking; he was an evil genius in all of these fields. He started off with bounty jumping by using false names to join different squadrons to gain the bounty and then fleeing. By using his diligence, he made a gang of pickpockets. Even a prison sentence of 3 years, when he was caught red-handed during a robbery, couldn’t stop his negative activities. He used inexplicable ways to defy all the security measures at the prison and escaped.
He continued with bank robberies very diligently without being caught quickly. Last but not the least, he even helped other fellow inmates to break free of prison walls by diligent strategic planning. He was finally caught amidst an armed robbery and sentenced to 7 years behind bars.
Niccolò Machiavelli was born in 1469 in Italy. Even though he faced incarceration in his early life due to political reasons, Niccolo managed to make his ideas count in the modern world. Niccolò Machiavelli’s inclusion in the list of top evil genius people has been a point of debate for a long time. His inclusion in the list is due to a book he published “The Prince” on political science. He wrote this book after thorough research on Roman history. In this book, he discussed methods that he had researched to have complete hold over the public even if extreme measures are to be used by the authorities. Some people regard him as the father of political theory, whereas, others regard his ideas as cruel, ruthless and not appropriate.
6-Paul Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels was born in 1897 in Germany. He was a devoted follower of Adolf Hitler. Goebbels was a member of the Nazi party. He gained education up till Ph.D. and kept excelling throughout his studies. After joining the Nazi party in 1924, he showed excellent skills in propaganda making. Since the basic idea of running Nazi party was propaganda, Hitler found a great evil genius in Joseph Goebbels. Goebbels was capable of supporting Hitler’s cause by his well-crafted ideas and careful planning. Moreover, his common cause with Hitler of the annihilation of Jews made him a perfect match. This led him to various important posts in the history of Germany. His evil genius was also evident from his extraordinary ability of confident public speaking. He made his points widely understood by using sarcastic humor as well. He died in 1945 after the death of Hitler.
5-Dr. Henry Howard Holmes
Dr. Henry Howard Holmes, in short, H. H. Holmes was born in 1861 New Hampshire USA. He started off with a respectable academic background. However, soon his attention began to divert towards negativity. Unfortunately, his careless and messed-up father didn’t suppress the negativity that was starting within him. He began his criminal career with insurance frauds using different official names to trick authorities. From there, he went on towards a bloodthirsty mission of serial killing.
To quench his awkward thirst of murdering humans, he used his evil ingenuity to build a tourist hotel in Chicago. From the exterior, no one could judge the sinister plans of its building in the heart of Chicago city. As visitors to the World’s Columbian Exposition arrived, many of them booked their hotel rooms at H. H. Holmes hotel. Inside the hotel were windowless rooms, gas-inducing systems and much more to murder people. The bodies were then pulled down in the basement by an air-vacuum system. Holmes then sold the human body parts. Due to his ruthless and bloodthirsty behavior, after being caught during a theft, he was hanged in 1896 for committing mass murders.
4-The Zodiac Killer
‘The Zodiac killer’ was a symbol of evil ingenuity at its peak. You can establish this yourself too by the fact that even his real name is yet unknown. He has puzzled law enforcement agencies till the present day by his coded and encrypted letters. The confirmed number of attempted murders was seven of which two survived miraculously. However, his confession is of 37 killings. He ravaged California with his evil genius plans and strategies. Using the letters he wrote to newspapers, he can be judged as a person with deep psychological issues. Despite his mental issues, his intelligence to code all the facts is a mystery.
Joseph Stalin came into this world on the 18th of December, 1878. He was a Soviet dictator. Stalin was a master at negative political planning, diplomacy, and power. He proved the evil genius within him by acting double faced without being noticed. On one side, he cleverly depicted himself to Lenin being part of the Soviet communism whereas, on the other hand, he secretly got his men appointed to crucial positions in the government to get indirect hold of the large state. More examples of his intelligence include his debating power at the conferences after World War II.
He tricked the American and British delegations into confusion and meanwhile twisted the decisions in his favor. This ruthless dictator became the source of mass murders as well. For example, in the Ukraine during the imposed famine of Holodomor. He rose from a straightforward and unidentified background to become an example of a top evil genius of all times.
Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, was a gifted genius. This fact can be judged by the fact that his IQ score was 167; the great Albert Einstein’s IQ reaches 160+. He studied at the Harvard University and at a mere age of 25, became an assistant professor of mathematics. His great intelligence is believed to have converted to negativity due to the place he achieved his primary education. He faced extreme bullying and inappropriate behavior towards himself at school. After resigning from teaching, he went in solitary confinement where he planted his plans for mass murders.
Ted used primary substances like dry cell batteries to create the most deadly homemade bombs. Ted ravaged the streets with his sinister yet genius plans. He targeted university professors, airlines, and industrial sector’s leaders to destroy the modern technological advancement to counter the effects on the environment. The sophistication of his bomb devices is an example till this date. Many of his bomb device models are on display in museums.
The name Adolf Hitler automatically brings into anyone’s mind, a picture of utter cruelty, ruthlessness and no regard for humanity whatsoever. However, looking at the other side of this picture, can you believe that Hitler was an outstanding evil genius who controlled so much single-handedly?
Hitler played a key role in bringing together a crumbling German state. He established a weak German state and gave it so many resources to be able to handle the economic situation during a war. Hitler used excellent ideas to mention in his charismatic speeches to make Germans realize their worth. He used ways that were not common at that time to push the Germans to join the Nazi party. Methods included films and radio advertisements. Adolf Hitler was a “one-man” power and maintained such an organized and disciplined behavior single-handedly.
His outstanding determination and ability to capture people’s mind is an example till this day of self-determination. Although Hitler’s self-determination caused a massive loss of innocent lives, his example can be used positively to have an idea of the great evil genius inside him!
Armed forces are the vital part of any country. Every country has it’s own capabilities to manage it’s army. There are many factors in the ranking of best armies across the globe.
The role of army:
Army is one of the most important and integral institutions of a country. Army protects a country’s territory and provides the citizens utmost protection from national and international threats. No doubt, army is backbone of any country. Working in Army is one of the most dangerous job in the world. A powerful army of a nation can respond to threats effectively. Only a competitive military can execute national defense policy well. Army also assists civil authorities when a nation undergoes some serious emergencies like natural calamities and mishaps etc. In this article,
Which one is best army in the world?
While classifying the list of ten best armies we have considered following parameters.
We did some detailed analysis in the following rundown of 10 best armies of the world. Let’s have a detailed insight:
After world war 11, Japan cut off its military operations. However, due to the increasing conflicts with China, Japan started its military growth again. Active frontline personnel consists of 250, 000. The military budget has raised up-to $49 billion. The army is equipped with 1,590 aircraft, 131 warships, 678 tanks and 119 attack helicopters. Along with China, Pakistan and India, Japan holds a strong military position in Asia. Japan fulfills its military equipment requirements mainly from domestic manufacturers including Toshiba, Mitsubishi, Daikin industries, Henderson group, NEC and others. Despite all these military strengths, Japan have one of the World’s best army.
Italy is not only the home of pizza but represents a very strong army. Italy has the annual defense budget of $35.8 billion. The active frontline manpower is 347, 927. The Italian army is engaged in 26 international missions. Italy was constantly receiving threats from ISIS. It is now also seriously planning to fight against ISIS in Lybia by deploying 5,000 military forces. The Italian defense ministry also calls for latest equipment to be included in Italian military. This consists of new aircraft, helicopters, long serving AW129 attack helicopters and latest submarines. Italy, in collaboration with France, has also developed next generation Air Defense Destroyer. This mission between Italy and France is stated as “Horizon program”. Italian army has special units of “special forces” and “special operation forces”. These Special Forces do special operations. They are particularly trained to operate in all kinds of environments and situations.
Ranked at number 8th among best armies in the world, Germany has announced military expansion for the first time in past 25 years due to US pressure and cyber threats. Germany is facing threats from ISIL and Russia also. That is why; it is planning to military expansion after reunification. It is the eighth largest military spender in the world which has allocated $45 billion on military this year. Germany has now strong military plans. Germany is expected to add 7,000 soldiers and new equipment of about $148 billion by 2030. Currently, it has active frontline personnel of 180,000, 408 tanks, 44 attack helicopters and 676 total aircraft.
After Paris attacks, France is going to further increase its defense budget to $51 billion in 2016. The available military equipment of France is 423 Tanks, 1,282 total aircraft, 48 attack helicopters and 284 interceptors. The president of France is responsible for military decisions and other related matters. France owns the world’s third largest nuclear deterrent. The French military weapons include side-arms, sub-machine guns, rifles, armored vehicles and others. French army also contains Crotale (mobile SAM system) which is manufactured in the country. Only France and Russia are the two countries in the world which develop self-contained SAM system. France, after Russia and US, is also capable of developing Scalp cruise missile. France also owns one of the most powerful aircraft carriers “Charles De Gaule”.
Due to its constant rivalry with North Korea, China and Japan, South Korea’s defense budget has increased to $34 billion in 2016. The military equipment consists of 2, 381 tanks, 1,454 aircraft, more than 15,000 land weapons and 1,990 self propelled guns include South Korea in the list of most powerful armies in the world. USA often conducts combine military training with South Korea. The president of the country acts as commander in chief of the armed forces.
Indian military budget of 2016 is $52 billion. The man power force of active frontline personnel of 1,325,000 is complimented by 6,464 tanks, 1905 aircraft, 19 attack helicopters and 295 Naval strength. Indian army position in the world is criticized as, large number of Indian army is deployed in Kashmir regardless of the fact that Kashmir’s do not want to be part of Indian state. Kashmir is a disputed area on which Pakistan and India are not settling down for past 68 years. As per Indian government, it is a long battle for army in Kashmir because the matter is not seemed to be solved in near future.
What’s make Pakistan army to be considered in world’s best army ranking? Here are some reason:
Pakistan is the biggest Muslim military power in the world and world’s most dedicated army. It is also the one and only Muslim nuclear power. Pakistan army is the most compatible in the Asian region. It has the active frontline manpower of 620,000 and total number of aircraft of 923. Other military strength comprises of 2,924 tanks, 134 multiple launch rocket systems and 52 attack helicopters. Pakistan owns the latest weapons and has strong nuclear assets in safe hands. With best soldiers in the world, the armed forces of Pakistan are also engaged in disaster relief operations in the country. Below are some prominent points of Pakistan army.
World’s best Military Commander General Award 2016: Currently serving as the Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan, General Raheel Sharif has been awarded “World’s best Military Commander General” of 2016. His courageous acts to eliminate the terrorist groups from Pakistan has made him popular and respected not only in Pakistan but around the globe. Under his commandment, Sawat operation, operation Rah-e-Nijaat and Zarb-e-Azab operation against various militant groups has made it possible to bring the much awaited peace in Pakistan. Terrorism is the biggest hurdle in Pakistan’s progress in recent years and army managed to eradicate this factor almost completely.
Pakistan Army have won 2 wars against it’s rival neighbor country India in 1948 and 1965 respectively. While other successful operations are also the part of the achievement list.
Pakistan is growing it’s Nuclear weapons at very fast pace. According to a report in the following decade Pakistan will become the 3rd country with largest nuclear arsenal.
With a defense budget of $66.4 billion, Russia is ruling the world after America as the world’s 2nd most powerful army in the world. About 766,055 troops make up of Russian total military strength out of which 230,000 consists of army personnel. Apart from that, it has total 15, 398 Tanks, total aircraft of 3,547, about 6,000 self propelled guns and 478 attack helicopters. Vladimir Putin’s main focus is to introduce more advanced military machinery than on increasing military manpower.
Future Military Plans: By 2020, Russia has a plan to include new and advanced lethal weapons into current lot to compete with the military modernization. These include the state-of-the-art weapons like PAK-FA (fifth generation fighter), PAK-DA (crafty bomber) and nuclear submarines.
State of War with Ukraine and Georgia: Russia showed off its army strength when it invaded Georgia and managed to take over some of the Georgian parts in 2008 in just 5 day conflict. Later in 2014, Russian army attacked the Crimea region of Ukraine. World criticized Russia on this cruel act of invasions. Russia is also facing immense criticism on its recent air strikes on Syrian’s common people.
China spent $215 billion last year in defense. With 2,335,000 active frontline personnel, China is one of the biggest army in the world. China is believed to have the powerful navy and armed forces. World’s best military training is provided to the forces by using extra advanced military technology. It has 3,000 aircraft and 9150 tanks. Currently, Chinese defense ministry is working on game changing military technologies in trying its efforts to be the number one army in the world.
Unites States of America’s army is ranked as number one in the world with GFP power index rating of 0.0897. The role of the American army is like any other army of the world i.e. to protect and defend the nation, to safeguard national interests and to fulfill other military responsibilities. What makes USA army the most powerful army in the world? There are many reasons.
Highest Military Budget: USA spends on military more than the entire world spends for defense. According to International Institute for Strategic Studies 2016, USA is spending $598 billion while the next top 14 countries together allocate $664 billion on their militaries. USA military budget is almost near to what next top 14 countries put together. With such biggest defense budget US army is the strongest army in the world.
Lethal Weapons: U.S army has the high tech lethal weapons including AH-64 Apache, M-1 Abrams, TOW Anti-Tank Missile, M-2.50-Caliber Machine Gun and M-109A6 Paladin. It has the 2nd largest nuclear arsenal with more than 100 military bases.
Invasion On Afghanistan And Iraq: Post 9/11 attacks on world trade center, USA announced Afghan war to dismantle terrorist group “Al-Qaida”. The war lasted from October 7, 2001 to 2014, which is the longest one in the history of United States. USA also used heavy aircrafts included Apache helicopter gunship for initial strikes. Other war equipments used were machine guns, rifles, different kinds of mortars, M-ATV’s rocket and grenade launchers, automatic pistols, and many more. The major development occurred when USA armed forces killed Al-Qaida leader “Osama Bin Laden” in Abottabad, Pakistan secret operation. On March 19, 2003, USA armed forces along with its allies, invaded Iraq to make the country free of weapons of mass destruction.
There are also numerous operations where US army took part and completed them successfully. These above factors ranked the US army at top in list of best armies in the world.
Do you know the longest hunger strikes ever happend in history?
A hunger strike is a brief or prolonged denial to eat or drink any substance to show dissent. This dissent can be against a government’s rules or laws, against a prison’s regulations or can even be a general hunger strike for the sake of a general cause.
Why do people go on hunger strikes?
Approval and disapproval of the rules imposed by the governing body has long been a natural phenomenon. Some choose violent ways to show their disapproval whilst others choose non-violent ways. Violent ways include rioting etc whereas hunger strikes fall into non-violent ways of protesting. There are many famous hunger strikers who have achieved their goals by adopting this method.
History of hunger strikes starts in India. Where “Bharata” did hunger strike as a protest in front of “Rama”. This happened in around 400 to 700 BC. In pre Christian Ireland, people also fast in front of the offender house as a protest.
How long can a human survive without food?
The duration of a hunger strike determines the level of risk it poses to the health of an individual. Hunger strikers have even died due to prolonging their hunger strikes beyond what a normal human body can sustain.
Which one is longest hunger strike in the world?
There are some famous hunger strikes while other remain in dark and didn’t able to achieve the desired results. In the following rundown, the top 10 longest hunger strikes have been classified according to their respective duration’s.
Cesar Chavez, a Mexican American born in 1927 in a poor family. The family run a garage, pool, grocery store and a farm.
Chavez family lost their farm by a fraudulent and become homeless. This issue made them migrant farm workers in California and Arizona. Chavez dropped out from school in 7th grade as the economic condition of their family was not well. He started working out in farms. As the farm workers are treated as slaves at that time, Chavez stood up against the cruelty. Chavez founded National farm workers association in 1962. He went door to door, town to town to woke awareness in farmers and asked them to stood up for their rights.
Strictly believing in non violence, he emerged his movement to the whole California. With thousand of farm workers he did long marches, pickets, boycotts, dharnas, and hunger strikes. His most famous and longest hunger strike lasts about 36 days. Named as “Fast for life”, the main purpose of hunger strike was to formulate the laws about health hazards faced by form workers and the pesticides exposure to their children. Chavez demands were accepted and farmers has been given proper wages, insurance and other benefits. He died in 1993 in his sleep.
9-Palestinian Hunger Strikes
In the spring of 2012, a mass hunger strike was started by 2000 people against the tyranny of the citizens and heads of Israel. This hunger strike lasted for almost one month with the theme that either they will achieve freedom or they will sacrifice their lives. Their main demand was access to education, and to place an end to solitary confinement and administrative detention. After a month’s tireless efforts, Palestinians were somehow successful in achieving their aims. Israel gave some concession. Around 400 prisoners were given permission to receive family visits. Moreover, general improvements were made in the conditions of detention cells and additional facilities like telephonic calls and television were introduced. This is considered as the biggest hunger strike in terms of group of people, in history of hunger strikes.
Solange Fernex was a socialist and a politician. He was born on 15 April 1934 in Strasbourg, France. She participated in a European election in 1979 but faced defeat as she only got 4.39% of the total votes. She kept herself involved in the work of several NGO’s, books, presentations etc. To raise her voice to help people get their rights. Her main theme for this struggle was to give equal rights to women. Moreover, most importantly, she wanted to preserve the environment against the nuclear power and the massive and devastating destruction caused by it.
Her efforts are exemplary. In 1984, she participated in the fast for life hunger strike which lasted for 40 days in Paris with the demand to disable the nuclear powers. This was a non-violent anti-nuclear movement to prevent deforestation. She participated in the formation of the Green Party in order to fight with more potential to serve Earth and to promote greenery on it. Solange strongly believed that her steps will help preserve the ecosystem as well. She also received the Nuclear Free Future Award for her efforts.
7-California Prisoners Hunger Strike
29,000 people in California prison started a hunger strike on 8 July 2013. It is one of the longest fast in the world, by group of people. The main reason for this hunger strike was solitary confinement. This hunger strike lasted for 60 days. This was arranged in the Security Housing Unit (SHU) at Pelican Bay State Prison. This hunger strike is considered as one of the longest hunger strikes in the history of California. This strike didn’t only compromise of not eating or drinking. It also comprised of not complying with prison authorities to go on exercises, workshops etc. By September 2013 only 105 individuals were left in two prisons.
This group of 100 people resumed eating food and drinking. Prison authorities tried to force feed them as the doctors indicated the seriousness of their condition. Methods like direct injection or insertion of liquid from the nose were used to force-feed the prisoners.
Michael Devine aka hunger striker was born in Derry, North Ireland on 26 May 1654. He is known as the pioneer of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA). Devine joined the Republican Club at a very young age after the British soldiers shot dead two unarmed citizens. This incident changed his personality as well as his life goals. In the 1970s, he joined the Labor Party to join young and energetic communists with the intention to serve his country. He wanted to stand against injustice. Therefore, in 1975 Michael Devine formed Irish National Liberation Army (INLA).
This step was taken by him after an army raid in Donegal in Ireland. Devine was soon arrested and at court orders, he was imprisoned for 12 years. On June 22, 1981, Michael Devine joined the Irish hunger strikers. He died on 21 August 1981 in the Lisburn, United States while he was in prison. His hunger strike lasted almost 60 days. After his death, the topic of common day debate changed, praising his determination and courage.
5-Jatindra Nath Das
Jatindra Nath Das was born on 27 October 1904 in Calcutta, British India. He is more commonly known as Jatin Das. He was a zealot and hardworking independence activist. From childhood, he was quite enthusiastic to gain his goals and achieve his rights. He even joined Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation movement in 1929 when he was just 17 years old. One of the longest records for surviving without food, he began hunger strike with his other social mates In Lahore jail. He demanded equality for Indian Political prisoners with the prisoners who came from Europe. Indians were treated very harshly and lived a pitiful life in jail.
There was definite injustice shown towards Indian prisoners. There was no proper care of hygiene. Das started his hunger strike on 10 June 1929 and lasted till 63 days. Jail authorities tried to force feed him but it was useless. Later they suggested the Government to release them but Government of that time offered to release him on bail only. As a result of prolong fasting, Jatin died on 13 Sept. 1929 while he was on the hunger strike in prison. Durga Bhabi led his funeral to Calcutta to tribute his hard work and sacrifice. Thousands of people paid homage to Jatindra Das. Many political leaders from all over the world also acknowledged his endeavors.
Bhagat Singh was an Indian national who was born on 25 March 1931 in Banga, Jaranwala Tehsil, Lyallpur district, Punjab, British India. It is presently a part of Pakistan. He was an active participant in the Indian independence movement. He was an enthusiastic and determined revolutionist. Bhagat Singh spent several months of his life in jail.
But when he was arrested on the charges of murdering Saunders and Channan Singh, he was arrested and shifted to Central Jail from Delhi jail. His hunger strike purpose to raise voice against improper hygienic conditions at the jail. Their clothes, rooms, and all basic necessities were unclean. They were enforced to do extensive manual labor which was unbearable for him and many other prisoners.
In June 1929 he started his hunger strike and he was successful enough to gain public sympathy and support. Jawaharlal Nehru visited Bhagat Singh in prison and grieved to see such a patriotic individual in pain. The government planned to test their patience by placing a well in front of them but their tactic was of no use and none of them ate food. After the Lahore conspiracy case, he was taken to Borstal Jail in Lahore. Singh still carried on with his hunger strike and by now he had lost 14 pounds. His popularity crossed the boundaries of Punjab. He ended his strike on 5th October 1929 after a 116-day hunger strike!
Maryum Altun was a Turkish native. She came into this world in 1976. Since the start, she believed in a lenient way of imprisonment. She started her protest using hunger strikes as a nonviolent way of achieving rights for prisoners. Her protest was against Turkey’s maximum security prison system. Her strike lasted for 302 days. She was an active member of the People’s Revolutionary Liberation Party or DHKP-C. She died in Istanbul hospital while she was on the hunger strike. On 1 April 2002, Maryum Altun passed away.
Ahmed Zaid Salim Zuhair was a Saudi National born in 1965. He belonged from Jeddah, a famous city in Saudi Arabia. One of the longest hunger strike in history in prison, Ahmed started his hunger strike in August 2005 but this news came in media in May 2008. The place where he was kept as a prisoner is known as Guantanamo Bay detention camps. A member of The Joint Task Force for Guantanamo, also known as Guantanamo Guard force commander, Colonel Bruce assured that forced feeding was used on prisoners.
Ahmed’s strike was against the United States of America. During his strike, he lost more than 16 Kilograms and he weighed less than 45 kg at the end of his strike. According to his attorney, his condition was very critical because of free time vomits as he was allergic to the liquid which was forcefully transferred to his body via his nose. In August 2008, he weighed 114 pounds and lost 23 pounds. After his repatriation, the length of his hunger strike surprised the world! His hunger strike lasted for 1450 days from August 2005 to June 2009!
1-Irom Chanu Sharmila
Irom Channu Sharmila is an Indian citizen. Irom Channu is a fanatic social and political activist. Among the longest hunger strikes in India Irom Channu’s hunger strike is the longest fast in the world. On 2nd November 2000, she started her hunger strike against the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA). Maloom Massacre encouraged Irom Sharmila to begin her protest when she was just 28 years old. She demanded the abolishment of Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA). Being an enthusiastic and determined activist, she firmly promised that she won’t drink or eat.
This act of 1958 is confined, till this date, to seven states only. It gives the authority to one who loses it to arrest without bail and search without a warrant. In the Maloom Massacre, 10 people were shot dead while they were waiting for the bus at a bus stop. After 16 years, Irom Sharmila ended her protest. She did not eat anything for more than 500 weeks, almost 15 years. This hunger strike is considered as one of longest hunger strikes ever in history. The reason why she ended her hunger strike was that she wanted to come in politics so that she can continue her fight with more power and determination.
And an honorary mention of Mahatma Gandhi.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar. Porbandar was in the British Indian Empire which is currently known as Gujrat, India. For Gandhi, it was really common to go on hunger strikes to get his demands fulfilled. These demands were mainly political. His part, the Congress, used this as a stratagem to gain sympathy from the masses. Though Mahatma Gandhi went several times on hunger strikes but longest hunger strike by Gandhi was of 21 days. In his whole life, he went thrice on a 21-day long hunger strike. The first time he went was on 18 Sept 1924 which ended on Oct. 8.
The reason for his life’s first longest hunger strike was for the sake of Hindu-Muslim unity. He ended his strike after listening to Gita and Quran being read. His second longest hunger strike started on 8 May 1933 and ended on 29 May. The reason for this hunger strike was to improve conditions of Harijans. His third and last longest fast started 12 Feb. 1943 and ended on March 4. He did this to stop communal riots. Gandhi strongly believed in joining the public in his mission. Gandhi hunger strikes with his hundreds or thousands of followers which he himself exerted massive pressure on government.
Have you ever seen cute baby animals pictures compilation?
These animal babies are so small and fluffy that they will make you go ‘Awww”?
It is in human nature that they like innocence and cuteness. Cuteness and innocence more often associated with the childhood. Human always have a very deep connection with animals. Like human’s child, animal babies are cute and lovable. We have collected 61 most cute baby animals photos for you.
Seeing these adorable baby animals will surely warm your heart instantly.
2-A redhead Baby Squirrel
3-You can’t get any cuter than this darling baby Skunk
50-Shopping cart filled with husky puppies with Chihuahua
51-This baby Polar Bears
Baby animals are always cute and adorable. Which animal’s baby you like the most? tell us in comments. Also If you have any picture relevant to this. Share with us and we share with the world.
Note: We did our best to credit every picture, but few of them are so much popular that it is hard to find the exact source. We have included the report link below the photos. You can tell us if you own the photograph.
For ages, art has been one of the prime forms of human expression. It is a language of imagination, creativity and emotionality. What cannot be described in words, artwork helps humans to explain it. Artwork can be in various forms including painting, sketching, sculpting, architecture and much more.
The people who are able to shape their imagination in a beautiful and impressive manner through artworks are known as artists. Some artists have the inexplicable diligence of showing their skills through their work and in the following rundown we have mentioned some famous artists and their work. These most famous artists and their paintings are still considered as “classics” in the history of art.
10-Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640)
Born in 1577, Peter Paul was an important figure in the artwork of Northern Europe. He was a Flemish artist. Peter mastered himself in wide range of specialties including architecture, metal shaping, sculpting and sketching. He crafted his work mostly in the fields of mythology and allegory. Peter not only produced masterpieces himself but also trained a new generation of artists. To see his masterpieces, one can visit the National Gallery in London and many other art galleries.
9-Jan Van Eyck (1390 – 1441)
He was amongst the oldest era’s artists. Born in 1390, Jan Van Eyck specialized in oil painting. He joined hands with his brother to spread his ideas through his paintings. Eyck particularly painted on religious topics and played an important role in the Northern Renaissance in Europe. Apart from this, he also had a deep interest in painting portraits. He had an important effect on many later Netherlandish painters. He died in 1441.
8-Claude Monet (1840 – 1926)
Claude Monet was born in a French family. He developed his artistic skills when he saw the rising trend of artwork in his surroundings. Claude was an artist inspired by nature. He would just relax, observe and then draw out any interesting artwork out of what he saw. His paintings like “Impression, sunrise”, “Poppies”, “Beach in Pourville” and many more speak out themselves about his extraordinary skills.
7-Auguste Rodin (1840 – 1970)
This was the man who provided a turning point in the art of sculpting. Auguste used stone, ceramic, plaster and bronze sculpting and shaping to create some of the finest pieces of artwork. He was a typical Frenchman and his work is on display at several French art galleries, particularly in Paris. Auguste was a master at crafting and sculpting human models with great naturalism and liveliness. His masterpieces like “The Thinker”, “The Gates of Hell”, and “The Burghers of Calais” are examples of his extraordinary skills and considered as most famous paintings. All of the mentioned sculptures are on display in Paris.
6-Johan Vermeer (1632 – 1675)
Johan Vermeer was born in 1632. He was a Dutch artist who was a specialist at painting portraits and household scenes. His paintings were mostly marketed by his own father until he lived. After his father’s death, Johan took over this task. Paintings like “Girl with a Pearl Earring”, “The Art of Painting”, “and The Little Street” quickly earned their fame due to their liveliness and impressive originality.
5-Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669)
He opened eyes in this world into a rich Dutch family. He was raised in a very good and healthy environment. It was during his university studies that he realized the potential he holds in the arts. He escaped university studies and started formal training in arts. Combined with his religious knowledge, his artwork proved to be worth his talent. He was often referred to as the “magician” who is able to blend ideas with so much integrity with his artwork. He was influenced by famous artists like Vincent Van Gogh. Amongst his best paintings of all time are “The Jewish Bride”, “The Polish Rider” and many more masterpieces throughout his era.
4-Vincent Van Gogh (1853 – 1890)
Vincent Van Gogh faced a miserable period in his early life. Despite this, he never stopped following his passion. After being removed from a post in church, he made a promising career in the field of arts. He formally studied painting and art from many great artists. He specialized in painting and drawing. His famous art pieces are on display in many countries throughout the world. Art pieces include “The Starry Night”, “Almond Blossoms”, “White House at Night” and much more! However, his mental instability became a major concern for him and he often suffered from fits. The world saw a sad ending to his career as he committed suicide after facing financial constraints.
3-Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973)
Pablo Picasso is still a very famous artist today due to his brilliant contribution towards art. Picasso belonged to Spain. He came into this world in 1881. Little did anyone know that this man will introduce a new dimension in the field of arts? He was a painter, poet, stage designer, ceramics designer and sculptor. Picasso, along with some other artists, introduced innovation to the art of molding plastics and making valuable and useful instruments and ornaments out of plastic.
An important moment in his success, as an artist, is his important part in the Cubist Movement that helped to give a new dimension to European art and craft industry. He was perhaps the best artist in the 20th century era. Last but not the least; he also introduced the art of “collage” that is still practiced. He lived a long life and died aged 91.
2-Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti (1475 – 1564)
Among all the greatest and famous artists in the world, Michelangelo di Ludovico Buonarroti has a prominent place. An Italian by nationality, Michelangelo played an important role in the development of European art. Born in 1475, Michelangelo made a lot of remarkable pieces of artwork. He also crafted many paintings and pieces of artwork that were used among the Renaissance period in Rome and Florence.
His pieces of artwork included paintings, marble carvings, sculptures, architecture and even poetry. Many artwork historians gave their remarks about him having an unparalleled quality in the field of blending his mind’s thought into his artwork. He died in 1564 at the age of 88. The 2nd greatest artist of all time on the list!
1-Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)
One of the most famous artist in the world, Leonardo da Vinci was a symbol of brilliance, excellence and inexplicable ingenuity! Born in 1452, he was an Italian by nationality. He was involved in almost every possible field, including painting, sculpting, architecture, writing, astronomy, engineering, mathematics and the list goes on.
Regarding his artwork, he became very famous for his work on the renowned painting of Mona Lisa. It is till this date the most lively and most famous paintings of all time. Moreover, his drawings like “The Last Supper” gained him fame in the cultural and religious niche. He died in 1519 at the age of 67 but left inspiration of ingenuity for generations to come! Indeed, the most famous artist of all times!
Some Other Famous Artists:
While classifying the greatest artists of all time some of the other famous artists names that were exceptional for their work are also included here.
11-Salvador Dali (1904 – 1989) Amazing Painter, Photographer, Sculpture, Writer and more. Dali most famous paintings are “The Persistence of Memory”, “Swans Reflecting Elephants”, “Landscape with Butterflies” and “Melting Watch”.
12-Henri Matisse (1869 – 1954) Known for printmaking, sculpturing, painting, collage and drawing. Henri is one of most famous painter for “Nu bleu “, “oman with a Hat” and La Danse.
13-Andy Warhol (1928 – 1987) Famous for Printmaking, painting and cinema. His most notable work is “Chelsea Girls (film), Exploding Plastic Inevitable (event) and Campbell’s Soup Cans (painting).
14-Georgia O’Keeffe (1887 – 1986) Was an American artist famous for her paintings of New York skyscrapers, New Mexico landscapes and enlarged flowers.
15-Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917) French artist popular for his drawings, sculptures, paintings and prints. He is best known for his paintings of “The Bellelli Family”, “At the Milliner’s”, “Woman with Chrysanthemums” and “Chanteuse de Café”.
16-Caravaggio (1571 – 1610) An Italian painter very famous for his paintings of “Boy Peeling a Fruit”, “Young Sick Bacchus” and “Fortune Teller”.
17-Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841 – 1919) A French artist and a very famous painter of his era. His famous work include “Bal du moulin de la Galette”, “Luncheon of the Boating Party” and “Nude”
18-Raphael (1483 – 1520) is an Italian architect and painter. His famous paintings include “The School of Athens”.
19-Paul Cezanne (1839 – 1906) A French painter known for his famous paintings of “The Bathers”, “Rideau, Cruchon et Compotier” and “Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Bellevue”.
20-Marc Chagall (1887 – 1985) Russian-French painter famous for paintings and stain glass. He is known for painting “The Poet Reclining”, “I and the Village” and many more.
21-Janet Fish (1938 – Still alive) One of the most famous artist of 21st century and best known for still life paintings. Have a look at Janet Fish work.
In this rapidly changing environment of the Earth, we are struck by a barrage of different negative factors. These factors include global warming and much more which is a growing concern for the birth of many severe diseases. However, severe is just a word to classify the deadliest diseases. The most severe amongst the terminal diseases are those which have no cure yet. If one encounters such a disease, he/she has no permanent escape from the trouble and mostly relies on temporary treatment. Such incurable diseases have bothered mankind through many generations. Even though millions of dollars are spent annually for the research of the cure for such diseases, mankind still hasn’t been able to prove itself in some cases. Here’s some more details about these deadliest and incurable fatal diseases.
Amongst other life threatening diseases, “Rabies” a viral disease sprouting more than 150 countries. Once the clinical symptoms start to appear, the results caused are mostly fatal. First acute inflammation of the brain begins following violent movements, headaches, uncontrollable emotions, paralysis, insomnia, hallucinations, delirium, coma, paranoia, agitation, loss of consciousness, state of confusion etc. The beginning of the symptoms is dependent on the speed at which this contagious infection reaches Central nervous system (CNS) via peripheral nerves. Cats, dogs, foxes, monkeys, wolves and dogs contribute in the transmission of rabies virus in humans. The preventive method present is vaccinating infect prone animals. Though it can be prevented, but once one gets infected, there is no cure.
All the auto immune diseases are categorized under one heading ‘lupus erythematous’. As the name suggests it is linked with the body’s immune system which instead of attacking foreign particles like bacteria, it attacks body’s own cells damaging the tissue. Chest pain, oral ulcer, fatigue, joint pain, fever with no other reason, hair loss, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes are common signs and symptoms of lupus. It mainly develops in ages 15-44. This disorder can initiate even in strong and smooth working immune systems due to environmental changes such as cosmic rays, trauma and emotional stress. Blood tests, chest X-rays, urinalysis helps the doctor to diagnose this. Anti-inflammatory medicines, steroid cream are used to get rid of its symptoms but no lifelong cure is available.
8-Fatal Familial Insomnia
(FFI) is extremely rare inherited disease. It has no cure and keeps on worsening causing hallucinations, delirium, confused states, high blood pressure, hyperventilation etc. The average life of the individual after the commencement of this disease is 18 months. This usually occurs due to gene mutation. Use of gene therapy, sleeping pills proved to be a complete failure in fighting fatal familial insomnia. Only doxycycline has been able to slow the developmental pace of fatal familial insomnia.
It is commonly known as mad cow disease. It is basically a neurological disease. In this disease, brain tissues degenerate very quickly causing holes in brain. When an affected person is examined, the holes in brain tissue resemble to the sponge holes and brain looks like a sponge. Loss of memory, change in personality, depression, anxiety, hallucinations and psychosis are common signs and symptoms. The main cause of this can be gene mutation. Agents required for its effective distribution are blood, transplanted cornea, injections contaminated with pituitary growth, hormones etc. In short it spreads via brain linked tissues and fluids. A person with Cruetzfeldt Jacob disease (CJD) cannot be cured and his ultimate fate is death.
It is a metabolic disease. A diabetic (a patient of diabetes) has high level of blood sugar. Symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination usually at night time. Furthermore, increased thirst and hunger, sudden weight loss, feeling fatigued and blurred vision are additional symptoms. There are two types of diabetes. In Type 1 body immune system destroys beta cells of islets of Langerhans in pancreas which produce insulin. This is commonly known as insulin dependent diabetes. Once detected, one is bound to take insulin injections on daily basis. The Type 2 is linked with the lack of production of insulin which is more commonly known as insulin resistance type. Several medications and insulin injection are present but no permanent cure is discovered yet.
Progeria includes in the list of incurable genetic diseases. Progeria syndrome is basically a genetic disorder. Its symptoms usually develop in the first few months after child is born. As time passes, aging is visible, alopecia (hair loss) , small face with pinched nose having a beak like tip, loss of weight, high pitched voice all are initial symptoms. Later on, several health issues become visible like hip dislocation, fragile bones, stiff joints, insulin resistance develops.
Moreover, skin becomes hardened, tightened and wrinkled, atherosclerosis, kidney failure and loss of eyesight occurs. Head enlarges and veins become visible. Death of children with Progeria usually occurs because of heart attack or stroke. Physical examination, vision and hearing test, pulse rate and blood pressure checkup can help in its diagnostics. A positive test for LMNA mutation assures presence of this disease. Its treatment comprises of occupational and physical therapies and low dose aspirin but no treatment is effective in curing it permanently.
Polio or Poliomyelitis is a contagious disease caused by Poliovirus (PV). In the case of encountering this virus, muscle weakness occur leading to inability to move; in short paralysis. Weakness usually affects legs and very rarely head, neck muscles and diaphragm. Minor symptoms include headache, sore throat, fever, neck stiffness, pain in arms and legs. Usually its transmission occurs in summers and autumn via fecal or orally. Infection is present in feces and saliva. A specimen of stool or liquid from pharynx is used to identify the presence of virus.
There are two types of vaccines used to fight polio and both of them promote immunity against polio hence stopping person to person transmission. There is no cure for polio but treatment is available in form of orthopedic surgery, antibiotics, nutritious and healthy diet, physical, occupational, hydro and electro therapies. Polio has been reduced by over 99% from around the world. Only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) are still effected by polio in the world.
Cancer or malignancy is the abnormal growth of body cells which have the ability to spread in rest of the body parts. There are over 100 types of cancers like skin, lung, breast and many more. All of them have different signs and symptoms but common to all is formation of lumps, abnormal bleeding and weight loss. Routine self-examination can help in the detection of cancer but is applicable on only few kinds for example rectum, prostrate, skin, breasts, mouth and testicle cancers.
If it became terminal cancer, Life can’t be saved. But if it get detected early, in such case, a patient’s entire medical history is examined carefully. Medical imaging like X-Rays, CT and MRI help doctors to exactly understand the position of cancer. Once its existence is confirmed treatment is started. The treatment of cancer includes radiation therapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. Though temporary treatment is present but there is NO PERMANENT CURE.
Human Immune Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome are linked with human immune system. Immune system is one which resists any negative change that tries to bother our body internally. Such kind of infection usually transfers through blood transfusion, during child birth from mother to child, unsterilized injections’ use on multiple individuals for the dosage of drugs. It is also caused during sexual intercourse. HIV symptoms
One cannot infected with HIV/AIDS if exposed to feces, urine, nasal secretion, vomit, sputum, saliva and sweat tears. Through laboratory tests, it can be diagnosed. Its treatment consists of antiretroviral therapy but currently no cure is present that can permanently kill it.
The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) has its main root causes in four different types of dangerous viruses. The signs and symptoms typically begin after two days and three weeks. At first fever, sore throat, muscular pain, headaches are faced by the infected person. It continues with addition of vomiting, diarrhea, rash and reduced function of kidneys and liver. External and internal bleeding also starts. Several bodily fluids act as medium of transfer of this virus from one individual to another. These include breast milk, semen, saliva, urine, mucus, vomits, feces, sweat tears etc. To control the infection from spreading, one should wear gloves, goggles, masks, protective gears and should avoid contact with infected person. Till present day no effective medication is present hence there is no cure for Ebola virus.
The list of incurable diseases is quite long. Some other incurable illnesses are mentioned below.
Commonly known as ‘flu’, this is an infectious viral disease caused by Influenza virus. Having fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pain, headache, frequent coughing, feeling fatigued indicates that you have influenza. There are three types of influenza which are named as A, B and C viruses. It can be transmitted via air when an infected person sneezes, coughs or even spits. People with diabetes, asthma, heart diseases and weak immune system are more prone to this virus. Plenty of water and bed rest is the key to fight flu but medicines are also available still it’s incurable.
Common cold is often thought as a normal and routine virus. However, it is a viral infectious disease. This affects nose, upper respiratory tract, throat, sinuses and voice box. 2 days after disclosure to infection, symptoms like cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, fever and severe sneezing show up. Its recovery time is 7 to 10 days if no artificial ways e.g. antibiotics are used. It’s transmitted via aerosols or fomites (clothes, furniture and utensils). Environmental factors may also contribute in this as long as unprotected exposure to cold weather isn’t avoided. The treatments available for this are analgesics like paracetamol etc. But these are just treatments and no permanent cure is available that can make you immune from common cold forever.
In short, let us pray that no one ever becomes exposed to any of such terminal illness. If incurable diseases symptoms appear, it is in the genes of someone, the person must take extreme care and ensure regular check-ups to not only make yourself safe but also keep your family safe! Will power can be used as a fight against such diseases without cures. So, feel healthy and stay healthy!
Caves are underground potholes that form by the gradual erosion of natural minerals and rocks. There are several kinds of caves that form over hundreds of years. Some are situated on dry land between mountains. These are called dry caves. Dry caves may consist of spectacular looking minerals lined on the walls of the cave. They may also consist of unique minerals that are rarely found. On the other hand, some caves are situated under the ocean, sea or river. Such caves are usually deep and a boat, canoes or diving services have to be used to enter these type of caves. These caves are known as underwater caves. Underwater caves might consist of various different fish species and much more.
Where is the longest cave located?
In the top 10 longest caves list mentioned below, We have classified these caves with respect to their lengths.
10-Holloch Cave, Switzerland
The Holloch cave is one of the few caves located in Switzerland. It stretches over a huge distance of 200.4 km or 124.5 miles. This landmark’s discovery happened in 1875. Till 1970, it maintained its title as one of the longest caves in the world. However, it still marks its fame by being the 2nd longest cave in Europe. The linings of this cave’s walls are mainly composed of limestone and composite materials. It is one of the deepest cave in the world. It’s location in a hilly area gives it a very long depth of 938.6 m or 3079 feet.
9-Fisher Ridge Cave, Kentucky USA
Stretching to a length of 200.5 km or 124.6 miles, the fisher ridge cave system is located close to the largest cave in the world i.e. Mammoth Cave system. It was first discovered in 1981 by the National Speleological Society. Researchers believe that upon further discovery, it might be linked through passageways to the Mammoth Cave. Fisher Ridge Cave ranked 1st among caves in Kentucky.
The Clearwater cave is located in Malaysia. It has a length of 215.3 km or 133.8 miles. It was first discovered in 1977 and till the present day, more and more passageways are being discovered. There are two ways that link to this cave. One way is by the means of a boat in Melinau River and other way is walking on foot on a 4 km track. It is renowned as the most interconnected cave consisting of a labyrinth of complex passageways.
7-Lechuguilla Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico
This cave ranges to a length of 222.6 km or 138.3 miles. Due to its bizarre geographical terrain, it’s not open for public visitors or tourists. It also earns its fame for being the deepest cave in United States. It has a depth of 1604 feet. The cave was named after a peculiar plant species at the opening of the cave called “Agave Lechuguilla.” The untouched, spotless and shiny condition of this cave makes it a wonderful cave to look at though only in pictures and documentaries. Lechuguilla cave is the deepest cave in United States.
The cave has yet to be completely explored and mapped. Right now, only 156.5km or 101 miles of Lechuguilla have been mapped and explored, with no end in sight. Till yet thedeepest part of the cave measured is 497 meters or 1,632 feet.
6-Wind Cave, South Dakota USA
This cave is renowned for its status of being the first cave to be established into a tourist spot and national park in 1903. The length of this cave stretches approx. 229.7 km or 142.7 miles. Surprisingly, on average, four miles are added to the discovered passageways of this cave each year. The cave has an area of 33,847 acres, lined with calcite and other minerals. This cave earns its name due to its small openings; the small openings mean that air pressure difference from the outside causes rush of cold winds into the large cave with narrow openings.
5-Optymistychna Cave, Ukraine
This cave is composed of Gypsum extending to a length of 236 km or 146.6 miles. Researchers have often called this cave as the maze cave. This is because of the puzzle of passageways of length 230 km twisting around in an enclosed area of just 2 square kilometers. This complex labyrinth of passageways was discovered in 1966. Due to its nomination as a natural wonder of Ukraine, it has been an attraction for explorers and expedition teams.
4-Sistema Ox Bel Ha, Quintana Roo Mexico
This cave’s discovery came in the late 1990’s i.e. 1996. This cave comes in the category of underwater caves. Amongst underwater caves yet discovered, it is considered largest underground cave in the world and ranked 4th in the list of longest caves. It extends a length of 257.1 km or 159.8 miles. This cave largely constitutes limestone.
This cave gets its name “Jewel” due to the shining calcite crystals that it consists. It extends to a length of 289.8 kilometers or 180.1 miles. The area of this cave is approx. 1273 acres. This cave was given the status of a national monument in 1908 and since then it is a great tourist attraction in United States. As an estimate, there were 77,146 visitors in 2011. This cave gets its main attention due to its lighted passageways. Moreover, the frosted-looking shiny crystals attract tourists from all over the world.
2-Sistema Sac Actun and Sistema Dos Ojos, Quintana Roo, Mexico
This cave is classified amongst the underwater caves. First of all, the name of this cave network is to be clarified. The name is in Spanish and translating it into English makes its meaning as the “White Cave System.” On the other hand, Dos Ojos means “Two Eyes” referring to the openings of the cave. The underground depth of this cave network reaches up to 119 meters. The cave length spans to about 335 km or 208.2 miles. This huge length makes it 2nd on the list of the top 10 longest caves in the world.
1-Mammoth Cave, Kentucky USA
The longest cave system in the world is right in the US in the state of Kentucky. As the name “mammoth” suggests, this cave is by far the longest cave yet discovered! It extends to a length of 651.8 kilometers or 405 miles. It is almost doubled in length to the 2nd longest cave system. Not only its length but also it has an extensive area stretching out up to 52,830 acres. This cave has an extensive layout of several passageways and is totally made up of limestone. The history of this cave dates back to almost 6000 years! It stands out amongst all the caves regarding its extensive length and considered as biggest cave in the world. This is why it tops the list of longest caves in the world.
And the bonus:
Hang Son Doong Cave, Vietnamese
One of the largest cave in the world is 5 Km long, 200m high and 150 m wide. It is also known as “Cave of the mountain river”. It is so big that it has its own forest, river and climate. One of the great tourist attraction in Vietnam this cave was first discovered in 1991. This cave possess the largest cave passage system in the world by volume. Hang Son Doong Cave open for tourist between February to August as after August rain raises the river levels and make the cave inaccessible.
There really are several methods to recognize professions that are dangerous. Different methods have been used to identify which jobs are more deadly. One method is count the number of fatalities during work. Mostly these deadliest jobs are outdoor jobs where workers have to perform his/her duty in tough, stressful and risky environment. You have to deal with job stress while risking your life. These most dangerous professions are not a piece of cake for a rookie. One need a special training and preparation to do these most hazardous jobs.
Based on the number of fatalities and severe risk to life we have enlisted top 10 most dangerous jobs in the world.
The most fearless grinders you have never heard of. These are the Tower climbers who install and service those sky piercing Cell towers out there. Tower climbing is the hardest job in the world. Tower climber’s climb on a cell tower and install, repair or replace the equipment. Being a Tower
climber is not that easy. You have to stay away from homes. Working in tough and harsh weather conditions make this job more risky. Falling is the main cause of fatalities in this job. According to OSHA Tower climbing is the most dangerous job in America. Tower climbers risk their lives to provide us a smooth communication.
Garbage collectors have to be one of the most hazardous jobs. Handling with sharp objects, contaminated and biological waste, Hanging on the backs of trucks and Lifting all day long. These Garbage collectors have no respect in society. People treat them like jokes while they risk more, get paid less, and are called as “garbage men”. Being a garbage collector is considered one of the most dirties job out there.
According to a study by Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Center, Florida Garbage collectors ranked 3rd most dangerous jobs in United states. There are some astonishing stats of injury among garbage collectors. On average collectors are injured seven times more than other workers.
8- Farmers & Ranchers
Working in the farms is one of the oldest occupation. Latest technologies has contributed so much to make this job safer and easier. Transportation of heavy machinery and frequent contact with equipment causes the injuries and fatalities in this hard job. Getting trampled, bitten, kicked and bucked are few potential threats faced by agriculture workers. Being a farmer ranked 8th most dangerous Jobs worldwide.
7-Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Driver
The trucking industry is considered as the lifeblood of the country. Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers usually do transportation of goods from different locations. Being a truck drive isn’t as easy as it looks. Despite the fact that they may enjoy the scenic countryside but driving for long hours on the road is most difficult and stressful thing to do. Accidents are the main cause of deaths in this job. Long hours driving, sleeplessness, slippery roads, snow falling, Busy roads, and harsh weather conditions are the major reasons of traffic accidents.
6-Lineman & Power Workers
Lineman and power workers are responsible for installing, maintaining and repairing of high power distribution and power lines.
Playing with “hot wires” is a normal thing for a Lineman. This is one of the most daring job in the world. Being a lineman is not the job of faint hearts. Working on high power lines, falls, burn and electrocution are constant danger for power workers. Better safety equipment has reduced the fatalities and injuries. The invention of fire proof clothes also cut down the injuries to a large extent.
Ironworkers involved in fabricating, assembling, erecting and installing Iron and steel beams in building construction and bridges.
Ironworkers face many dangers during their job. According to the U.S. Department of Labor Ironworkers are suffering the highest body count. Majority of them are falling from heights. Ironworkers install steel and iron beams using cranes. Sharp metal brings with it the danger of cuts. Falling is one of the most significant dangers to Ironworkers. Ironworkers has highest injuries count in all occupations.
Roofers are responsible for fixing and building rooftops of offices and homes. Working at height is always a dangerous thing to do. These workers often fall down from heights. Along with other fatal injuries, fracture is the most common injury in roofers. Despite of equipment failure, sunburn, heatstroke and hammered fingers, falling is the main cause of injuries. Roofer is one of the most injury-prone occupation and considerably fourth most dangerous jobs in the world.
Pilots are highly trained specialists who fly aircrafts or helicopters to transport out different variety of tasks. These aren’t regular airline pilots. As the third most dangerous occupation in the world, these commercial pilots and independent operators involved in crops-dusting, seed spreading for reforestation, monitoring traffic, testing new aircraft, tracking criminals flying passengers and cargo to areas not served by regular airlines, help firefighting and rescuing injured people.
Commercial pilots face other types of job difficulties. This include test pilots who do experimental flight to check the airplane performance is one of the dangerous thing to do. Crop duster pilots can be exposed to toxic chemicals, potential risk of hearing loss may occur due to long expose to noise and many more.
2-Fishers and Fishing related Workers
Forget the idea of leisurely fishing. Fishing for a living is a dangerous job to do. Fishing has consistently ranked as the most deadly occupation since 1992. There is a heavy dose of danger in this job. Workers in this occupation face life-threatening hazards, harsh weather, vessel casualties, transportation and diving incidents, slippery ship decks, falling overboard and much more. These fishermen find themselves in unsafe circumstances at every turn. All these factors increases this profession mortality rate. These sea-faring workers ranked second for the most dangerous occupation in the world.
Being a logging worker is one of the most Daring Jobs out there. Logging workers crop a large number of miles of woods every year. The timber they pick supplies the raw-material for industrial goods and a lot of consumer-goods. Logging can be hazardous and is challenging. Most loggers possess a high-school degree. They access it-the-job-training to understand woods surroundings also to find out the best way to use machines that are used for logging.
These loggers usually pick, transport and cut timber to be processed into wood products. A logger have to perform in Intense surroundings that are inhospitable, as well as the work is usually infrequent and less paying.
The Job: Cut down and trim trees for transportation and sale.
The Dangers: Dropping trees, cutting equipment, hard territory.
Each one of us knows what a prison is used for: to lock up the lawbreakers and offenders. Unfortunately, some peace offenders and law breakers won’t give up on their brutal and negative activities even after being locked up. They will use every possible way to get their escape from prison and continue their peace breaking activities. They can even go as far as murdering correctional officers on the premises to voice their frustration of being locked up! For such notorious prisoners, Supermax prisons are designed and built by department of corrections to counter their evil-genius ideas to get out of the premises. Such prisons are carefully laid out, technically supervised and watched by a huge number of guards 24/7. In the following list is covering 10 most secure prisons ever built and currently functional on this Earth:
10-Fuchu Prison, Japan
This prison was originally built to host the leaders supporting communism and those who played part in the Korean freedom movement. This prison has an astonishing capacity for prisoners i.e. 2842. The need for such a large prison was realized after the destruction of the ex-largest prison of Japan by an earthquake. This prison is intelligently divided into several sections. For instance, the foreigner inmates section, mentally disabled prisoners etc. This enables each type of prisoners to be kept with their peers and to avoid any fight within the facility.
Unfortunately, despite of the intelligent planning, the prisoners held at the Fuchu Prison face harsh conditions that are hard to cope for any prisoner. No heating or air-conditioning, having water-like non-nutritious diet consisting soup and rice just 2 times a day and poor sanitation conditions give it a bad reputation. A somewhat brighter side of this prison is that it contains a vocational training center for the moral training of its inmates.
9-HM Prison Belmarsh, England
It is one of the highest security prison in UK. HM Prison is situated in Woolwich. It was situated in April, 1991. HM Belmarsh has a capacity of 855 inmates. It is used to house those prisoners that are related to severe terrorism related activities. This prison is built as a mixture of both Supermax and normal cells. It is based on an infrastructure of 4 residential blocks. The residential blocks are divided into 40% solitary-confinement cells whereas the rest of the 60% are double-bed cells for the “better” prisoners. Due to the extreme, harsh conditions at HM Prison, there are several recreational activities introduced.
Those prisoners with a tendency to think for suicide are given special psychological treatment. Moreover, a sports room, gyms, educational center and workshops offer multiple opportunities for all types of inmates. According to Wikipedia, the HM Belmarsh has a contract with Charlton Athletic F.C. for the coaching of prisoners. Sports offered at this prison include badminton, volleyball, soft tennis, weight lifting, basketball and some sports for the above 50 and 60 years old. Formal education options include arts, engineering, cooking, maths, music and much more. Last but not the least, the prison offers a well-established library with 3 sessions of 20 minutes per week allowed to inmates.
8-San Quentin State Prison, California
This state prison is more than a century old! It was established in 1852. This prison mostly hosts the death row inmates and has facility of execution by orders of capital punishment. This prison has a strong framework and infrastructure based on 1.75 square kilometers. It employs almost 1700 staff members and spends approximately a whopping $210 million on its services and inmates hosting expenditure. It is California’s largest prison with an inmate capacity of 3082. However, this facility has usually been overcrowded with an average overpopulation of 37% or more. With the latest statistics from Wikipedia, in January 2016’s survey, this prison was hosting 3,682 inmates.
However, for the better-behaving inmates who are not on death row, this prison offers some good programs. For example, the inmates who are well behaved and have a good baseball talent are allowed to have matches from outside teams within the prison facility in summers. For the inmates who wish to have formal studies, this prison has an exclusive educational system to offer. Named as Prison University project, it offers official degree granting study offers for both moral and formal education of willing inmates.
This prison is located in Mumbai, India. It holds the position of a “Central Jail”. News of being transferred to this prison sends chills down the spine of even the most strong inmates.
This prison has earned its name as a place of filth, smell and harmful conditions for human habitation. It was built with a holding capacity of around 800 but it holds round about 2000 inmates at a time. This exceeding amount of inmates quite clearly explains the conditions.
However, keeping this aspect aside, on the security aspect, this prison is a Supermax security prison. It is believed to have walls that don’t get destroyed even by average bomb.
6-Portlaoise Prison, Ireland
Anti-aircraft guns, accurate and precise rifle-armed men ready to shoot on guard towers and a barrage of door escape sensors and cameras pointing at almost every possible angle in the facility; all these features give it more a look of a border control agency rather than a prison! This prison came into operation in the late 1830’s. It has an operational capacity of 399 prisoners, however, considering the danger associated with every prisoner, the numbers are kept far below the capacity. The ones captivated here are the most serious drug offenders, serial killers and ruthless rapists who will stop at nothing. Since it hosts such high profile criminals, there have been numerous attempts of external bombings to initiate a massive breakout. This is why the region above the prison is labelled as a “NO FLY ZONE” to ensure Supermax security!
5-Qincheng Prison, China
This prison was established in the late 1950’s. It was built mainly for the purpose of captivation of the active participants of the famous Democracy Movement. This movement lasted for several decades until the 90’s. This prison is built in the northwest of the capital of China i.e. Beijing. It was built with the help of the Soviet Union. This prison is marked by its special feature of being enclosed in a valley. There’s no escape route except the main gate which is heavily guarded. If a prisoner tries to escape from the back of the premises, he/she will end up in the enclosed valley with nowhere to escape. This Supermax prison is guarded by approx. 5000 armed guards.
Occasionally, even logistics trucks are emptied at gates to check for any prisoner hidden inside. It also contains one of the tallest guard towers in the world to keep an eagle’s eye on even the slightest movement within the premises. A true “dungeon” indeed!
4-North Branch Correctional Institution, Maryland
This Supermax security prison commenced in 2003 as one of the foremost highest security prisons. It is deemed safe for even housing the worst of the criminals like cannibals, serial killers and even death row inmates. It houses approx. 1471 inmates. Its construction cost of about $175 billion makes it quite clear about its extensive security measures. Technologically, it’s one of the most advanced prison which requires a minimal number of technical watch-officers.
A notable feature of this facility is its uniqueness of its build-style. Normally prisons are situated with watch towers at the outer side of the framework of the facility. However, the North Branch Correctional center features a center based watch tower with all the prison buildings around it. Last but not the least, to avoid prisoners breaking out or making potentially harmful weapons within their cells, ballistic-resistant glass has been used. All this boosts up the cost of hosting a prisoner up to $34,000 per annum!
3-Black Dolphin Prison, Russia
Home to almost 700 inmates, this prison facility has an astonishing 1:1.3 ratio of inmates to guards. This means that almost 900 guards are appointed for 700 inmates. Almost all the prisoners kept here are severely misbehaved ones facing life behind bars. To keep the layout of the prison secure from inmates, eyes are covered with a thick cloth while transportation to various blocks. The only recreation for inmates at this Supermax prison is a 90 minute exercise to relax themselves. A head count by the wardens every 15 minutes leave no gap in the security for any successful escape. Some inhumane conducts imposed on the prisoners include the restriction for them to sleep during daylight hours. This means that they have fixed and scheduled hours for sleeping and any extra sleep will cause them trouble.
Let me mention that the name “Black Dolphin” has been attributed to this prison because of a sculpture at the gate of the prison. Interestingly, this sculpture was designed by the prisoners themselves!
This prison facility makes its name due to its technological advancement. It has a reasonable capacity of 1024 inmates. Usually the number of inmates has always been below the capacity. Souza Baranowski Center is one of the American supermax prisons.
It holds the pride of being strategically designed by a highly qualified team from the famous institution, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Its layout and systems were first planned on computer software and tested before putting them to practical work. It has a keyless system throughout the facility. All doors are centrally controlled from the control center. The camera system designed by the team covers almost every possible aspect in the prison 24/7.
A whopping number of 370 full High Definition CCTV cameras monitor the prisoners. The video record is kept safe for revision later on for any possible gaps in the security. Even motion sensors are installed on each door to hint at the slightest escape attempt! It is also based completely on a renewable power source like solar power and hydroelectric. This means that all the electric powered systems cannot be switched off by a deliberate power cut by anyone as it has its own power supply.
A truly technology inspired prison for the notorious criminals!
1-Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX), Florence Colorado
This facility is built on a 37 acre land with a housing capacity of 490 Supermax prisoners. It has three separate sub-facilities of different security levels. Home to some of the most notorious mass murderers, this facility was created in 1994. It was created after a series of murders of correctional officers in the normal prisons. There was a dire need to host such prisoners in the securest cells in solitary confinement. The prisoners at ADX are locked down for 22 to 23 hours a day. With the latest statistics, the numbers of inmates subject to the Supermax security are 404.
The cells are guarded with double cell doors like first there’s a sliding solid metal door, followed by a door made of solid metal bars and this sequence repeats one more time. This means 4 doors in total for one prisoner which makes it almost soundproof! Most of the prison is above the ground. The only part which is underground is a corridor which links cell blocks.
ADX Florence also famous as “Alcatraz of the Rockies” tops the list of supermax prisons in the world.